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費洛蒙的世界 2011-04-22



Women who wore perfume with synthesized female pheromone were more attractive to their male partners, conclude scientists at San Francisco State University.

Pheromones are odorless chemicals excreted from the body that affect reproductive interactions among both animals and humans. They are picked up by a special organs or tissues in the nose, and then conveyed to regions higher up in the brain.

The new study, appearing in the journal Physiology and Behavior, found that women who had pheromone added to their perfume reported a more than 50 percent increase in sexual attention from men: they were involved in more sexual intercourse, kissing, heavy petting, affection, and slept closer to their partner or date.

Women wearing perfume with a placebo also experienced an increase in these activities, though not as great as the pheromone group. The authors say this increase can be explained by the effect that results from "just thinking" you are wearing a sexy pheromone.

"The most highly significant difference between the placebo and the pheromone group was actually sexual intercourse," says Norma McCoy, lead author and professor of psychology at San Francisco State University. "It is clear that there is something that is odorless and is being exuded from reproductive age women ?that affects male behavior ?that makes the women attractive."

Pheromones and Attraction

The pheromone used in the study is what its maker, Athena Institute for Women's Wellness Research, believes is a generic substrate, a substance that when put on someone's skin reacts with that person's own chemistry to achieve its effect.

Adds Winnifred Cutler, institute founder and president and a reproductive biologist and co-discoverer of pheromones in humans, "When it works for a woman, it doesn't seem to matter what perfume she wears."

Research has also shown that significantly more men who wore aftershave with a synthetic version of a male-excreted pheromone engaged in sexual intercourse and sleeping next to their partner than those who wore aftershave with placebo.

The institute is offering the pheromone for sale, using the proceeds to fund pheromone research. The company also sells a pheromone that can be worn by men.

Beyond Sexual Attraction

There is more to pheromones than sexual attraction, according to Cutler.

"If you divide up the research on pheromones into what type of behaviors are shown to be affected by them, you can organize them into four different classes," says Cutler: mother-infant interaction, territorial marking, reproductive synchrony, and sexual attraction.

While most studies on the topic use animals, there have been intriguing human findings, too.

Studies have shown, for instance, that babies as young as three days old are able to distinguish the odor of their mother from that of other nursing mothers. Babies will turn their faces toward lingerie that has been worn by their own mothers ?and ignore other women's ?when the garments are waved over their heads.

Other research on reproductive synchrony has shown that women living together in dorms or working together have synchronized menstrual cycles. Interestingly, one study of women working in pairs found that women who said they disliked each other did not cycle together.

Future Pheromone Research

In addition to providing interesting insight into the roots of human behavior, pheromone research may have some therapeutic uses.

The Athena Institute is currently exploring uses of attractant pheromones to improve social interactions of people who may experience subconscious shunning by others, such as people with cerebral palsy. In addition, infertility groups have expressed interest in doing research on women who are undergoing infertility treatments to see the effect that these chemicals have on the outcome.

Attractant pheromones may also be useful to women who have undergone hysterectomies.

"In women a loss of sexual attraction is frequently experienced after hysterectomy and there is a need for a double blind study to look at the role that pheromones play in that," explains Cutler.

These future research projects have the potential to expand the application of pheromones to humans beyond the perfume bottle.


女性如用合成的雌性費洛蒙香水會對其異性伴侶更具吸引力,舊金山州立大學的科學家們如是說,費洛蒙是一種由身體分泌會影響動物及人類繁殖互動的無味化學物質,是由鼻子內的特殊器官或組織所偵測到然後轉換到腦部較高的區域。

在”生理及行為”期刊中出現的一份新研究,使用添加費洛蒙香水的女性吸引男性的程度超過50%:和伴侶有更多性行為、親吻、擁抱、激情。

女性如用添加placebo的香水也有類似的效果但不像費洛蒙這麼好,作者說這可解釋為就想成你噴了性感的費洛蒙的效果。

“Placebo跟費洛蒙最大的不同是繁殖互動,Norma McCoy說,很明顯的生育年齡婦女一定會分泌一種會影響男性行為無味的氣味使得女性更有吸引力。

Pheromones and Attraction
費洛蒙及吸引力


雅典娜協會針對女性的健康研究,相信費洛蒙是基因的基底,一種當放在某人皮膚上會跟其化學作用起反應以達到效果的成份,協會創辦人、總裁、生殖學家及發現人類費洛蒙者之一的Winnifred 說”一旦對女性有用,噴什麼香水好像就無關緊要了”。

研究也顯示出,使用添加男性費洛蒙刮鬍泡的男性,比使用添加placebo刮鬍泡的男性對性對象及帎邊人的影響更重大。

Beyond Sexual Attraction
在性吸引力背後的真正意義


費洛蒙有比性吸引力更深的意義,如果把對費洛蒙的研究劃分會影響何種形式的行為,大致可以區分為四種:母親跟嬰兒的互動、領域的劃分、同步繁殖及性吸引力。

研究顯示,嬰兒在三天大時就可以分辨母親的氣味,嬰兒會把臉轉向他們母親所穿過的內衣那邊,而對其在他們頭上揮舞其它女性穿過的衣服而置之不理。

其它在同步繁殖的研究顯示,同住在宿舍或是一起工作的女性的月經週期會一致,很有趣的,一項針對成對在一起工作的女性之研究顯示,女性如果互相不喜歡那週期就不會一致。

Future Pheromone Research
更多研究


研究也顯示費洛蒙也可具有療效。

雅典娜協會目前尋找費洛蒙引誘劑的使用以改善會讓人刻意躲避的人的社交互動,例如有腦性麻痺的人。

費洛蒙引誘劑也許也子宮切除的婦女有幫助。

如果女性因為子宮切除了失去了性的吸引力,那費洛蒙扮演了很好的角色。

更多的研究將會開拓費洛蒙在人類身上香水以外的潛在運用。

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